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Introduction

Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 350 kilometres (220 mi) west of the state capital, Bangalore. Mangalore lies between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, and is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara) district in south western Karnataka.

Mangalore derives its name from the local Hindu Goddess Mangaladevi. It developed as a port on the Arabian Sea – remaining, to this day, a major port of India. Lying on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers, Mangalore is often used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. The city has a tropical climate and lies in the path of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoons. Mangalore's port handles 75% of India's coffee exports and the bulk of the nation's cashew exports.

Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Vijayanagar dynasty, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.


History

The area that is now Mangalore has been mentioned in many ancient works of Hindu history. In the epic Ramayana, Lord Rama ruled over the region, while in the epic Mahabharata, Sahadeva, the youngest of the Pandavas, governed the area.Arjuna, the hero of Mahabharata, also visited the area when he travelled from Gokarna to Adur, a village near Kasargod. Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travelers. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, referred to the port of Mangalore as Mangarouth. Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, while Greek historian Ptolemy referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore. Ptolemy also referred to the city as Maganoor in some of his works.

In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. The region was known as Sathia (Shantika) during the Mauryan regime. From second century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty ruled over the region. From 567 to 1325, the town was ruled by the native Alupa rulers. The Alupas ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas of Kalyani, and Hoysalas. Mangalapura (Mangalore) was the capital of the Alupa dynasty until the 14th century. The city, then an important trading zone for Persian merchants, was visited by Adenese merchant Abraham Ben Yiju. The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarun, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary. By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control. Later, the Jain Kings and the Muslim Bangara Kings ruled the town as feudatories of the Vijayanagar Empire, and brought the town firmly under an efficient and centralised administration. In 1448, Abdul Razak, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, and was amazed at a glorious temple he saw in the city, en route to Vijayanagara.


Demographics

Mangalore has a population of 398,745 per the 2001 census of India. The urban area has a population of 538,560,[88] while the metropolitan area has a population of 419,306 (2001). According to World Gazetteer, Mangalore's estimated population in 2008 was 431,976, making it the 101st most populous city in India. As of the same extrapolations, the World Gazetteer estimated the population of the Mangalore urban area to be 603,269, making it the 61st most populated urban area in India. The number of males was 200,234, constituting 50% of the population, while the number of females were 198,511. The decadal growth rate was 45.90. Male literacy was 86%, while female literacy was 79%. About 6% population was under six years of age. Mangalore's literacy rate is 83% – significantly higher than the national average of 59.5%. Birth rate was 13.7%, while death rate and infant mortality rate were at 3.7% and 1.2% respectively. The Mangalore urban area had 32 recognised slums, and nearly 22,000 migrant labourers lived in slums within the city limits. According to the Crime Review Report (2006) by the Dakshina Kannada Police, Mangalore registered a drop in the crime rate in 2005, compared with 2003.


Culture

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore, while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami. Karadi Vesha (bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara. Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats. The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat (traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings). The Eucharistic procession is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each New Year.The Srimanthi Bai Museum, in Bejai, is the only museum of Mangalore.


Education

The pre-collegiate medium of instruction in schools is predominantly English and Kannada, and medium of instruction in educational institutions after matriculation in colleges is English. Additionally, other media of instruction exist in Mangalore. Recently, a committee of experts constituted by the Tulu Sahitya Academy recommended the inclusion of Tulu (in Kannada script) as a medium of instruction in education.

Schools and colleges in Mangalore are either government-run or run by private trusts and individuals. The schools are affiliated with either the Karnataka State Board, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) boards. After completing 10 years of schooling in secondary education, students enroll in Higher Secondary School, specializing in one of the three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science. Since the 1980s, there have been a large number of professional institutions established in a variety of fields including engineering, medicine, homoeopathic medicine, dentistry, business management and hotel management. The earliest schools established in Mangalore were the Basel Evangelical School (1838) and Milagres School (1848). The Kasturba Medical College established in 1953, was India's first private medical college. Popular educational institutions in the city are National Institute of Technology (Karnataka), KS Hegde Medical Academy, A. J. Institute Of Medical Science, Father Muller Medical College, Father Muller Homeopathic Medical College, St. Aloysius College, Canara College, Canara Engineering College, S.D.M. College and St. Joseph Engineering College. The Bibliophile's Paradise, a hi-tech public library run by the Corporation Bank, is located at Mannagudda in Mangalore. Mangalore University was established on September 10, 1980. It caters to the higher educational needs of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts[118] and is a National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) accredited four-star level institution


Transport

Mangalore's location makes it accessible via all forms of transport. Transport systems in Mangalore include private buses, KSRTC buses, trains, taxis and autorickshaws.

Four National Highways pass through Mangalore. NH-17, which runs from Panvel (in Maharashtra) to Edapally Junction (near Cochin in Kerala), passes through Mangalore in a north–south direction, while NH-48 runs eastward to Bangalore. NH-13 runs north-east from Mangalore to Solapur. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is upgrading the national highways connecting New Mangalore Port to Surathkal on NH-17 and BC Road junction on NH-48. Under the port connectivity programme of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), a 37.5-kilometre (23.3 mi) stretch of these highways will be upgraded from two-lane to four-lane roads. NH-234, 715-km long Highway connects Mangalore to Villupuram.

Mangalore's city bus service is operated by private operators and provides access within city limits and beyond. Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist – city routes are covered by city buses, while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses. Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) operates long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state. The other key players who run bus services from Mangalore are the Dakshina Kannada Bus Operators Association (DKBOA) and the Canara Bus Operators Association (CBOA). These buses usually ply from the Mangalore Bus Station. White coloured taxis also traverse most of the city. Another mode for local transport is the autorickshaw.


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